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英语考试语法精华一

来源:未知 作者:admin 时间:2009-10-17 17:23:45 字体:[ ]

动名词
  1. 某些动词后要接动名词
  某些及物动词后能用动名词而不能用不定式作宾语,其中最常用动词的有admit, avoid, appreciate, complete, consider, delay, deny, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, finish, forgive, involve, imagine, can’t help, mind, miss, postpone, practise, prevent, quit, resent, risk, resist, suggest等。
  She suggested spending another day in the mountain area.
  There’s no way to escape doing the work.
  She is considering asking her employer for a rise.
  Note:
  ① 在need、want、require、deserve等动词后的动名词相当于不定式的被动式
  The clock needs/wants repairing. (=The clock needs/wants to be repaired)
  The disabled deserve respecting. (=The disabled deserve to be respected.)
  ② 在like、hate、prefer等动词后,如果表示一般倾向,则用动名词作宾语;如果指具体的某次发生在将来的行动,则要用不定式。
  I like reading books of this kind, but I don’t like to read that book.
  She prefers walking to cycling.
  I prefer to stay at home today.
  ③ 在remember、forget、regret等动词后,如果用动名词作宾语,则表示该宾语的动作发生在动词谓语的动作之前;如果用不定式作宾语,则表示宾语的动作发生在动词谓语的动作之后
  I remembered locking the door. (=I remembered that I had locked the door.)
  I remembered to lock the door (=I remembered that I was to lock the door.)
  I regret telling you about it. (=I regret that I told you about it.)
  I regret to tell you he has fallen ill. (=I regret that I am to tell you he has fallen ill.)
  2. 动名词作介词的宾语
  动名词可作介词的宾语,与介词一起构成介词短语,在句中作定语、状语或表语。
  His dream of becoming a successful writer has come true.
  She left without saying goodbye to us.
  动名词作介词的宾语常用在某些词组后面。这类常用的词组主要有:be accustomed to, believe in, confess to, dream of, feel like, give up, insist on, be interested in, look forward to, object to, have an (no) objection to, pay attention to, put off, be responsible for, succeed in, be tired of, be (get) used to, worry about,等。
  He is used to living on his own.
  He has made up his mind to give up smoking.
  3. 带逻辑主语的动名词
  动名词可以有逻辑主语,其构成形式为“名词或代词的所有格+动名词”。带逻辑主语的动名词又称为动名词的复合结构,在句中用作主语,宾语,表语和介词的宾语。在非正式语体中,如果动名词的复合结构在句中作宾语,也可以宾格来充当动名词的逻辑主语。但考生需注意的是,在各种英语测试中,专家们仍坚持在正式语体中用代词的所有格来作动名词的逻辑主语。
  Your driving a car to New York took longer than I expected.
  I appreciated her devoting herself to the cause of education.
  Your mother will be astonished at your coming home so late.
  What we felt uneasy about was Li Ming’s having too much confidence in himself.

不定式
  1. 某些动词后要接不定式
  某些及物动词后只能接不定式作宾语,其中最常用的动词有agree, afford, arrange, appear, ask, attempt, care, choose, continue, decide, demand, desire, determine, expect, fail, fear, forget, hate, hesitate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, regret, remember, seek, tend, try, volunteer, want, wish等。
  What do you plan to do tomorrow?
  She hated to move from such a nice village.
  In class teachers should try to get feedback from their students
  2. 不定式的被动式
不定式有被动式,当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,不定式要用被动式,在句中可作主语,宾语,定语,状语,复合宾语等。作定语时,通常表示在谓语动作后将要发生的动作。
  The last question to be discussed today is how to do the job more efficiently.
  She preferred to be given more difficult work to do.
  3. 不定式的完成式
当不定式的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,不定式要用完成式,在句中可作宾语,状语以及构成复合宾语,复合谓语。
  She seemed to have heard about the news already.
  He was believed to have been a very rich man.
  4. 不定式的完成被动式
当不定式的逻辑主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,且不定式的动作发生在谓语动词的动作之前,不定式要用完成被动式,在句中可作主语,宾语或构成复合宾语,复合谓语。
  The forest fire is reported to have been put out last night.
  It is supposed to have been finished without referring to any reference books.
  5. 带逻辑主语的不定式短语
  不定式可以有逻辑主语,其构成形式为“for +代词的宾格(或名词) +不定式”。 带逻辑主语的不定式短语可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或状语等。
  It is not easy for you to catch up with them in a short time.
  I think it better for you to see the doctor.
  What we want is for you to understand the matter clearly.
  I sent him some pictures for him to see what Paris is like.
  6. 带疑问词的不定式短语
  不定式前可以加某些疑问代词,如who、what、which,或疑问副词,如when、where、how、why等,构成一种特殊的不定式短语,可在句子中作主语、宾语、表语或状语等。
  How to improve English is often discussed among the students.
  We haven’t decided when to visit the place.
  The most difficult thing in learning English is how to speak the language well.
  You haven’t answered my question where to get these books.
  7. 某些动词后的不定式作宾语补足语时,不定式不带to,这些动词是feel, have, hear, let, make, notice, see, watch等。
  Suddenly I felt the atmosphere in the room become tense.
  I often hear them sing this song.

分词
  1. 现在分词与过去分词的区别
  现在分词与过去分词的区别主要体现在时间和语态上。现在分词表示正在进行的动作并表示主动的意义,而过去分词表示已经完成的动作并表示被动的意义。比较:
  a changing world(一个变化着的世界);a changed world( 一个已经起变化的世界)
  surprising news(令人惊讶的消息);surprised people(感到惊讶的人们)
  2. 分词作状语考试大-全国最大教育类网站(www.Examda。com)
  作状语时,表示时间、原因、方式、结果、条件、让步和伴随情况等。另外,作状语时,它的逻辑主语应与句子的主语一致。
  Hearing the news, he heaved a sigh of relief.
  Given another chance, I’ll do it much better.
  3. 分词作定语
  分词常用来修饰名词或代词作定语。单个的分词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之前;分词短语作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之后。但有些单个的过去分词作定语时,也可放在被修饰词之后。
  He’s a spoilt child.
  The man standing over there is our new English teacher.
  Where are we to get the material needed?
  4. 分词作宾语补足语
  分词可在感觉动词和使役动词后作宾语补足语。常用的感觉动词主要有:see, hear, notice, watch, find, observe, smell等。常用的使役动词主要有:get, have, keep, leave, set, make, let等。此外,分词还可在want, like, wish, order等表示希望、要求、命令等意义的动词后作宾语补足语。
  She watched her baby sleeping.
  I got my hair cut.
  I don’t want you worrying about me.
  5. 分词与连词的连用
  分词可与各种连词(如:when, while, once, until, if, unless, though, although, even if, as, as if, as though等)连用。连词+分词(短语)的结构在句中作状语,相当于状语从句。
  She’ll get nervous when speaking in public.
  He went on talking, though continually interrupted.
  6. 分词的独立结构
  分词作状语时,其逻辑主语与句子的主语应该一致;否则,分词应有自己的逻辑主语,构成分词的独立结构。独立结构一般位于句首,作伴随状语以及在科技文章中表示附加说明时,它常位于句末。分词的独立结构由名词、代词+分词构成,可以表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况等。
  Weather permitting, the football match will be played on Wednesday.
  Her son having been sent to school, she began to do some shopping.
  He returned three days later, his face covered with mud and his clothes torn into pieces.
  There were two parties yesterday evening, each attended by some students.

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